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Photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a dense ring system around Centaur Chariklo

Titulo: 
Photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a dense ring system around Centaur Chariklo
Autores: 
Duffard, R; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Ortiz, JL; Alvarez-Candal, A; Sicardy, B; Santos-Sanz, P; Morales, N; Colazo, C; Fernandez-Valenzuela, E; Braga-Ribas, F
Resumen: 
Context. A stellar occultation observed on 3rd June 2013 revealed the presence of two dense and narrow rings separated by a small gap around the Centaur object (10 199) Chariklo. The composition of these rings is not known. We suspect that water ice is present in the rings, as is the case for Saturn and other rings around the giant planets. Aims. In this work, we aim to determine if the variability in the absolute magnitude of Chariklo and the temporal variation of the spectral ice feature, even when it disappeared in 2007, can be explained by an icy ring system whose aspect angle changes with time. Methods. We explained the variations on the absolute magnitude of Chariklo and its ring by modeling the light reflected by a system as the one described above. Using X-shooter at VLT, we obtained a new reflectance spectra. We compared this new set of data with the ones available in the literature. We showed how the water ice feature is visible in 2013 in accordance with the ring configuration, which had an opening angle of nearly 34 degrees in 2013. Finally, we also used models of light scattering to fit the visible and near infrared spectra that shows different characteristics to obtain information on the composition of Chariklo and its rings. Results. We showed that absolute photometry of Chariklo from the literature and new photometric data that we obtained in 2013 can be explained by a ring of particles whose opening angle changes as a function of time. We used the two possible pole solutions for the ring system and found that only one of them, alpha = 151.30 +/- 0.5, delta = 41.48 +/- 0.2 degrees (lambda = 137,9 +/- 0.5, beta = 27.7 +/- 0.2 degrees), provides the right variation of the aspect angle with time to explain the photometry, whereas the other possible pole solution fails to explain the photometry. From spectral modeling, we derived the composition of the Chariklo surface and that of the rings using the result on the pole solution. Chariklo surface is composed with about 60% of amorphous carbon, 30% of silicates and 10% of organics; no water ice was found on the surface. The ring, on the other hand, contains 20% of water ice, 40-70% of silicates, and 10-30% of tholins and small quantities of amorphous carbon.
Autor principal: 
Duffard, R
Autor/es del IAA: 
Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.; Fernandez-Valenzuela, E.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201424208
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/08
Volumen: 
568
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
Kuiper belt objects: individual: Chariklo; planets and satellites: rings
Número de artículo: 
A79

Dust environment and dynamical history of a sample of short-period comets

Titulo: 
Dust environment and dynamical history of a sample of short-period comets
Autores: 
Pozuelos, FJ; Moreno, F; Aceituno, F; Casanova, V; Sota, A; Lopez-Moreno, JJ; Castellano, J; Reina, E; Diepvens, A; Betoret, A; Hausler, B; Gonalez, C; Rodriguez, D; Bryssinck, E; Cortes, E; Garcia, F; Garcia, F; Limon, F; Grau, F; Fratev, F; Baldris, F; Rodriguez, FA; Montalban, F; Soldan, F; Muler, G; Almendros, I; Temprano, J; Bel, J; Sanchez, J; Lopesino, J; Baez, J; Hernandez, JF; Martin, JL; Ruiz, JM; Vidal, JR; Gaitan, J; Salto, JL; Aymami, JM; Bosch, JM; Henriquez, JA; Martin, JJ; Lacruz, J; Tremosa, L; Lahuerta, L; Reszelsky, M; Rodriguez, M; Camarasa, M; Campas, M; Canales, O; Dekelver, PJ; Moreno, Q; Benavides, R; Naves, R; Dymoc, R; Garcia, R; Lahuerta, S; Climent, T
Resumen: 
Aims. In this work, we present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterize the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185/Petriew, and P/2011 W2 (Rinner). Methods. We use two different observational data sets: a set of images taken at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada and, the A fp curves provided by the amateur astronomical association Cometas-Obs. To model these observations, we use our Monte Carlo dust tail code. From this analysis, we derive the dust parameters, which best describe the dust environment: dust loss rates, ejection velocities, and size distribution of particles. On the other hand, we use a numerical integrator to study the dynamical history of the comets, which allows us to determine with a 90% confidence level the time spent by these objects in the region of Jupiter family comets. Results. From the Monte Carlo dust tail code, we derived three categories according to the amount of dust emitted: weakly active (115P, 157P. and Rimer). moderately active (30P, 123P, and 185P), and highly active (22P, 78P, and 118P). The dynamical studies showed that the comets of this sample are young in the Jupiter family region, where the youngest ones are 22P (similar to 100 yr), 78P (similar to 500 yr), and 118P (similar to 600 yr). The study points to a certain correlation between comet activity and time spent in the Jupiter family region, although this trend is not always fulfilled. The largest particle sizes are not tightly constrained, so that the total dust mass derived should be regarded as a lower limit.
Autor principal: 
Pozuelos, FJ
Autor/es del IAA: 
Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423762
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/08
Volumen: 
568
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
comets: general; methods: numerical; methods: observational

The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metallicity of the Chamaeleon I star-forming region

Titulo: 
The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metallicity of the Chamaeleon I star-forming region
Autores: 
Spina, L; Randich, S; Palla, E; Biazzo, K; Sacco, GG; Alfaro, EJ; Franciosini, E; Magrini, L; Morbidelli, L; Frasca, A; Adibekyan, V; Delgado-Mena, E; Sousa, SG; Hernandez, JIG; Montes, D; Tabernero, H; Tautvaisiene, G; Bonito, R; Lanzafame, AC; Gilmore, G; Jeffries, RD; Vallenari, A; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Korn, AJ; Pancino, F; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, MT; Damiani, F; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; de Laverny, P; Lardo, C; Masseron, T; Prisinzano, L; Worley, CC
Resumen: 
Context. Recent metallicity determinations in young open clusters and star-forming regions suggest that the latter may be characterized by a slightly lower metallicity than the Sun and older clusters in the solar vicinity. However, these results are based on small statistics and inhomogeneous analyses. The Gaia-ESO Survey is observing and homogeneously analyzing large samples of stars in several young clusters and star-forming regions, hence allowing us to further investigate this issue. Aims. We present a new metallicity determination of the Chamaeleon I star forming region. based on the products distributed in the first internal release of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Methods. The 48 candidate members of Chamaeleon I have been observed with the high-resolution, spectrograph UVES. We use the surface gravity, lithium line equivalent width, and position in the Hertzsprimg-Russell diagram to confirm the cluster members, and we use the iron abundance to derive the mean metallicity of the region. Results. Out of the 48 targets. we confirm 15 high probability members. Considering the metallicity measurements for nine of them. we find that the iron abundance of Chamaeleon I is slightly subsolar with a mean value [Fe/H] = -0.08 +/- 0.04 dex, This result agrees with the metallicity determination of other nearby star-forming regions and suggests that the chemical pattern of the youngest stars in the solar neighborhood is indeed more metal-poor than the Sun. We argue that this evidence may be related to the chemical distribution of the Gould Belt that contains most of the nearby star-forming regions and young clusters.
Autor principal: 
Spina, L
Autor/es del IAA: 
Alfaro, E. J.; Costado, M. T.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201424135
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/08
Volumen: 
568
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
open clusters and associations: individual: Chamaeleon I; stars: pre-main sequence; stars: abundances; techniques: spectroscopic
Número de artículo: 
A2

MAGIC observations and multifrequency properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 in 2011

Titulo: 
MAGIC observations and multifrequency properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 in 2011
Autores: 
Aeksic, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, LA; Antoranz, P; Babie, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, EB; Barrio, JA; Gonzalez, JB; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bianch, O; Bock, RK; Bonnefoy, S; Bormoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, DC; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, JL; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, CD; Doert, M; Dominguez, A; Presters, DD; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, MV; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Lopez, RJG; Garczarczyki, M; Terrats, DG; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Munoz, AG; Gozzini, SR; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, ML; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorenz, U; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mareote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, JM; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Niisson, K; Nishijima, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, JM; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, PGP; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, JR; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Seapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, SN; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidarie, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Takarni, H; Taveeehio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, DF; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Wagner, RM; Zandane, F; Zanin, R; Berdyugin, A; Vornanen, T; Lahbteenmaki, A; Tammi, J; Tornikoski, M; Hovatta, T; Max-Moerbeek, W; Readhead, A; Richards, J; Hayashida, M; Sanehez, DA; Marscher, A; Jorstad, S
Resumen: 
Aims. We study the multifrequency emission and spectral properties of the quasar 3C 279 aimed at identifying the radiation processes taking place in the source. Methods. We observed 3C 279 in very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays, with the MAGIC telescopes during 2011, for the first time in stereoscopic mode. We combined these measurements with observations at other energy bands: in high-energy (HE, E > 100 MeV) gamma-rays from Fermi-LAT; in X-rays from RXTE; in the optical from the KVA telescope; and in the radio at 43 GHz, 37 GHz, and 15 GHz from the VLBA, Metsihovi, and OVRO radio telescopes -along with optical polarisation measurements from the KVA and Liverpool telescopes. We examined the corresponding light curves and broadband spectral energy distribution and we compared the multifrequency properties of 3C 279 at the epoch of the MAGIC observations with those inferred from historical observations. Results. During the MAGIC observations (2011 February 8 to April 11) 3C 279 was in a low state in optical, X-ray, and gamma-rays. The MAGIC observations did not yield a significant detection. The derived upper limits are in agreement with the extrapolation of the HE gamma-ray spectrum, corrected for EBL absorption, from Fermi-LAT. The second part of the MAGIC observations in 2011 was triggered by a high-activity state in the optical and gamma-ray bands. During the optical outburst the optical electric vector position angle (EVPA) showed a rotation of similar to 180 degrees. Unlike previous cases, there was no simultaneous rotation of the 43 GHz radio polarisation angle. No VHE gamma-rays were detected by MAGIC, and the derived upper limits suggest the presence of a spectral break or curvature between the Fermi-LAT and MAGIC bands. The combined upper limits are the strongest derived to date for the source at VHE and below the level of the previously detected flux by a factor of similar to 2. Radiation models that include synchrotron and inverse Compton emissions match the optical to gamma-ray data, assuming an emission component inside the broad line region with size R = 1.1 x 10(16) cm and magnetic field B = 1.45 G responsible for the high-energy emission, and another one outside the broad line region and the infrared torus (R = 1.5 x 10(17) cm and B = 0.8 G) causing the optical and low-energy emission. We also study the optical polarisation in detail and interpret it with a bent trajectory model.
Autor principal: 
Aeksic, J
Autor/es del IAA: 
Dominguez, A.; Prada, F.; Zandane, F.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201323036
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
gamma rays: galaxies; galaxies: active; quasars: individual: 3C 279; galaxies: jets; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; relativistic processes
Número de artículo: 
A41

MAGIC long-term study of the distant TeV blazar PKS 1424+240 in a multiwavelength context

Titulo: 
MAGIC long-term study of the distant TeV blazar PKS 1424+240 in a multiwavelength context
Autores: 
Aleksic, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, LA; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, UB; Barrio, JA; Gonzalez, JB; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, RK; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carrnona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, DC; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, JL; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, CD; Doert, M; Dominguez, A; Prester, DD; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferene, D; Fonseca, MV; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Lopez, RJG; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, DG; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Munoz, AG; Gozzini, SR; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellertnann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Mencei, M; Miranda, JM; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; P, MA; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, JM; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, PGP; Prandini, E; Prezinso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, JR; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, SN; Siilanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Takarni, H; Taveeehio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, DF; Toyama, T; Trevesu, A; Uellenheck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, RM; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Cutini, S; Gasparrini, D; Furniss, A; Hovatta, T; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kotilainen, J; Lister, M; Lahteemaki, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Pavlidou, V; Readhead, A; Richards, J
Resumen: 
Aims. We present a study of the very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, which is made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z greater than or similar to 0.6 and makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods. The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE gamma rays for a total observation time of similar to 33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. A detailed analysis of its gamma-ray spectrum and time evolution has been carried out. Moreover, we have collected and analyzed simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data. Results. The source was marginally detected in VHE gamma rays during 2009 and 2010, and later, the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is similar to 7.2 sigma. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws with the indices ranging from 3.5 +/- 1.2 to 5.0 +/- 1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background light connect smoothly, within systematic errors, with the mean spectrum in 2009-2011 observed at lower energies by the Fermi-LAT. The absorption-corrected MAGIC spectrum is flat with no apparent turn down up to 400 GeV. The multiwavelength light curve shows increasing flux in radio and optical bands that could point to a common origin from the same region of the jet. The large separation between the two peaks of the constructed non-simultaneous spectral energy distribution also requires an extremely high Doppler factor if an one zone synchrotron self-Compton model is applied. We find that a two-component synchrotron self-Compton model describes the spectral energy distribution of the source well, if the source is located at z similar to 0.6.
Autor principal: 
Aleksic, J
Autor/es del IAA: 
Dominguez, A.; Prada, F.; Zandanel, F.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423364
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
gamma rays: galaxies; BL Lacertae objects: individual: PKS 1424+240
Número de artículo: 
A135

Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

Titulo: 
Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC
Autores: 
Aleksic, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, LA; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, JA; Gonzalez, JB; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, JL; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, EDO; Mendez, CD; Prester, DD; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fonseca, MV; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; Lopez, RJG; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, DG; Gaug, M; Godinovic, N; Munoz, AG; Gozzini, SR; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, JM; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, JM; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persie, M; Moroni, PGP; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, JR; Rugamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, SN; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, DF; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Zanin, R; Martin, J; Perez-Torres, MA
Resumen: 
Context. The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray source candidates. It is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared with the Crab nebula because of their morphological similarities. This object was previously observed by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (Whipple, VERITAS and MAGIC), although it was not detected, with an upper limit of 2.3% Crab unit (C. U.) at VHE. It was detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. Aims. We aim to extend the spectrum of 3C 58 beyond the energies reported by the Fermi Collaboration and probe acceleration of particles in the PWN up to energies of a few tens of TeV. Methods. We analyzed 81 h of 3C 58 data taken in the period between August 2013 and January 2014 with the MAGIC telescopes. Results. We detected VHE gamma-ray emission from 3C 58 with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C. U. above 1 TeV. According to our results, 3C 58 is the least luminous VHE gamma-ray PWN ever detected at VHE and has the lowest flux at VHE to date. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function d phi/dE = f(0)(E/1 TeV)(-r) with f(0) = (2.0 + 0.4(stat) + 0.6(sys)) X 10(-13) cm(-2) S-1 TeV-1 and F = 2.4 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 0.2(sys). The skymap is compatible with an unresolved source. Conclusions. We report the first significant detection of PWN 3C 58 at TeV energies. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons upscatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and far-infrared (FIR) values similar to cosmic microwave background photon fields. If we consider an unexpectedly high FIR density, the data can also be reproduced by models assuming a 3.2 kpc distance. A low magnetic field, far from equipartition, is required to explain the VHE data. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires an unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic-ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.
Autor principal: 
Aleksic, J
Autor/es del IAA: 
Perez-Torres, M. A.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201424261
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
gamma rays: general; pulsars: general; ISM: supernova remnants
Número de artículo: 
L8

Theoretical gravity and limb-darkening coefficients for the MOST satellite photometric system

Titulo: 
Theoretical gravity and limb-darkening coefficients for the MOST satellite photometric system
Autores: 
Claret, A; Dragomir, D; Matthews, JM
Resumen: 
Aims. We present new calculations of limb and gravity-darkening coefficients to be used as input in many fields of stellar physics such as synthetic light curves of double-lined eclipsing binaries and planetary transits, studies of stellar diameters or line profiles in rotating stars. Methods. We compute the limb-darkening coefficients specifically for the photometric system of the satellite MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations in STars). All computations were performed by adopting the least-square method, but for completeness we also performed calculations for the linear and bi-parametric approaches by adopting the flux conservation method. The passband gravity-darkening coefficients y(lambda) were computed by adopting a more general differential equation, which also takes the effects of convection into account. Results. We used two stellar atmosphere models: ATLAS (plane-parallel) and PHOENIX (spherical and quasi-spherical). We adopted six laws to describe the specific intensity distribution: linear, quadratic, square root, logarithmic, exponential, and a more general one with four terms. The covered ranges of T-eff, log g, metallicities, and microturbulent velocities are (1500-50 000 K, 0-5.5, -5.0-+1.0, 0-8 km s(-1)), respectively.
Autor principal: 
Claret, A
Autor/es del IAA: 
Claret, A.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423515
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
binaries: eclipsing; planetary systems; binaries: close; stars: atmospheres; stars: evolution
Número de artículo: 
A3

Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

Titulo: 
Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas
Autores: 
Garcia-Burillo, S; Combes, F; Usero, A; Aalto, S; Krips, M; Viti, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hunt, LK; Schinnerer, E; Baker, AJ; Boone, F; Casasola, V; Colina, L; Costagliola, F; Eckart, A; Fuente, A; Henkel, C; Labiano, A; Martin, S; Marquez, I; Muller, S; Planesas, P; Almeida, CR; Spaans, M; Tacconi, LJ; van der Werf, PP
Resumen: 
Aims. We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self regulate. Methods. We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas (n(H-2) similar or equal to 10(5-6) cm 3) tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCI+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r similar to 2 kpc of NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions similar to 0.3'-0.5' (similar to 20-35 pc for the assumed distance of D = 14 Mpc). Results. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give an unprecedented detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas (n(H-2) >= 10(5-6)cm(-3)) in NGC 1068. Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r similar to 200 Pe off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6 kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r similar to 1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN, and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), betraying ongoing feedback. We used the dust continuum fluxes measured by ALMA together with NIR/MIR data to constrain the properties of the putative torus using CLUMPY models and found a torus radius of 20(-10)(+6) pc. The Fourier decomposition of the gas velocity field indicates that rotation is perturbed by an inward radial flow in the SB ring and the bar region. However, the gas kinematics from r similar to 50 pc out to r similar to 400 pc reveal a massive (M-mol similar to 2,7(-1.2)(+0.9) x 10(7) M-circle dot) outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. Conclusions. The molecular outflow is likely launched when the ionization cone of the narrow line region sweeps the nuclear disk. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, (dM/dt similar to 63 M-circle dot yr(-1), is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii, confirming that the outflow is AGN driven. The power of the AGN is able to account for the estimated momentum and kinetic luminosity of the outflow. The CND mass load rate of the CND outflow implies a very short gas depletion timescale of <= 1 Myr. The CND gas reservoir is likely replenished on longer timescales by efficient gas inflow from the outer disk.
Autor principal: 
Garcia-Burillo, S
Autor/es del IAA: 
Costagliola, F.; Marquez, I.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423843
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
galaxies: individual: NGC 1068; galaxies: ISM; galaxies: kinematics and dynamics; galaxies nuclei galaxies: Seyfert; radio lines: galaxies
Número de artículo: 
A125

VdBH 222: a starburst cluster in the inner Milky Way

Titulo: 
VdBH 222: a starburst cluster in the inner Milky Way
Autores: 
Marco, A; Negueruela, I; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C; Apellaniz, JM; Dorda, R; Clark, JS
Resumen: 
Context. It has been suggested that the compact open cluster VdBH 222 is a young massive distant object. Aims. We set out to characterise VdBH 222 using a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength observations. Methods. We obtained multi-band optical (UBVR) and near-infrared (JHK(S)) photometry of the cluster field, as well as multi-object and long-slit optical spectroscopy for a large sample of stars in the field. We applied classical photometric analysis, as well as more sophisticated methods using the CHORIZOS code, to determine the reddening to the cluster. We then plotted dereddened HR diagrams and determined cluster parameters via isochrone fitting. Results. We have identified a large population of luminous supergiants confirmed as cluster members via radial velocity measurements. We find nine red supergiants (plus one other candidate) and two yellow supergiants. We also identify a large population of OB stars. Ten of them are bright enough to be blue supergiants. The cluster lies behind approximate to 7.5 mag of extinction for the preferred value of R-V = 2.9. Isochrone fitting allows for a narrow range of ages between 12 and 16 Ma. The cluster radial velocity is compatible with distances of similar to 6 and similar to 10 kpc. The shorter distance is inconsistent with the age range and Galactic structure. The longer distance implies an age approximate to 12 Ma and a location not far from the position where some Galactic models place the far end of the Galactic bar. Conclusions. VdBH 222 is a young massive cluster with a likely mass >20 000 M-circle dot. Its population of massive evolved stars is comparable to that of large associations, such as Per OB1. Its location in the inner Galaxy, presumably close to the end of the Galactic bar, adds to the increasing evidence for vigorous star formation in the inner regions of the Milky Way.
Autor principal: 
Marco, A
Autor/es del IAA: 
Maiz Apellaniz, J.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423897
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
Hertzsprung-Russell and C-M diagrams; stars: evolution; stars: early-type; supergiants; techniques: photometric; techniques: spectroscopic
Número de artículo: 
A73

Diversity of gamma-ray burst energetics vs. supernova homogeneity: SN 2013cq associated with GRB 130427A

Titulo: 
Diversity of gamma-ray burst energetics vs. supernova homogeneity: SN 2013cq associated with GRB 130427A
Autores: 
Melandri, A; Pian, E; D'Elia, V; D'Avanzo, P; Della Valle, M; Mazzali, PA; Tagliaferri, G; Cano, Z; Levan, AJ; Moller, P; Amati, L; Bernardini, MG; Bersier, D; Bufano, F; Campana, S; Castro-Tirado, AJ; Covino, S; Ghirlanda, G; Hurley, K; Malesani, D; Masetti, N; Palazzi, E; Piranmonte, S; Rossi, A; Salvaterra, R; Starling, RLC; Tanaka, M; Tanvir, NR; Vergani, SD
Resumen: 
Aims. Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been found to be associated with broad-lined type-Ic supernovae (SNe), but only a handful of cases have been studied in detail. Prompted by the discovery of the exceptionally bright, nearby GRB 130427A (redshift z = 0.3399), we aim at characterising the properties of its associated SN 2013cq. This is the first opportunity to test the progenitors of high-luminosity GRBs directly. Methods. We monitored the field of the Swift long-duration GRB 130427A using the 3.6 m TNG and the 8.2 m VLT during the time interval between 3.6 and 51.6 days after the burst. Photometric and spectroscopic observations revealed the presence of the type Ic SN2013cq. Results. Spectroscopic analysis suggests that SN 2013cq resembles two previous GRB-SNe, SN 1998bw and SN 2010bh, associated with GRB 980425 and X-ray flash (XRF) 100316D, respectively. The bolometric light curve of SN 2013cq, which is significantly affected by the host galaxy contribution, is systematically more luminous than that of SN 2010bh (similar to 2 mag at peak), but is consistent with SN 1998bw. The comparison with the light curve model of another GRB-connected SN 2003dh indicates that SN 2013cq is consistent with the model when brightened by 20%. This suggests a synthesised radioactive Ni-56 mass of similar to 0.4M(circle dot). GRB 130427A/SN 2013cq is the first case of low-z GRB-SN connection where the GRB energetics are extreme (E-gamma,E-iso similar to 10(54) erg). We show that the maximum luminosities attained by SNe associated with GRBs span a very narrow range, but those associated with XRFs are significantly less luminous. On the other hand the isotropic energies of the accompanying GRBs span 6 orders of magnitude (10(48) erg < E-gamma.iso < 10(54) erg), although this range is reduced when corrected for jet collimation. The GRB total radiated energy is in fact a small fraction of the SN energy budget.
Autor principal: 
Melandri, A
Autor/es del IAA: 
Castro-Tirado, A. J.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423572
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
567
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
gamma-ray burst: general; supernovae: individual: SN2013cq
Número de artículo: 
A29

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