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The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC4418 A young clustered starburst revealed?

Titulo: 
The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC4418 A young clustered starburst revealed?
Autores: 
Varenius, E; Conway, JE; Marti-Vidal, I; Aalto, S; Beswick, R; Costagliola, F; Klockner, HR
Resumen: 
Context. The galaxy NGC4418 contains one of the most compact obscured nuclei within a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) in the nearby Universe. This nucleus contains a rich molecular gas environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared-to-radio luminosity (q-factor). The compact nucleus is powered by either a compact starburst or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims. The aim of this study is to constrain the nature of the nuclear region (starburst or AGN) within NGC4418 via very-high-resolution radio imaging. Methods. Archival data from radio observations using the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) interferometers are imaged. Sizes and flux densities are obtained by fitting Gaussian intensity distributions to the image. The average spectral index of the compact radio emission is estimated from measurements at 1.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Results. The nuclear structure of NGC4418 visible with EVN and MERLIN consists of eight compact (<49 mas i.e. <8 pc) features spread within a region of 250 mas, i.e. 41 pc. We derive an inverted spectral index a >= 0.7 (S-nu proportional to nu(alpha)) for the compact radio emission. Conclusions. Brightness temperatures >10(4.8) K indicate that these compact features cannot be HII-regions. The complex morphology and inverted spectrum of the eight detected compact features is evidence against the hypothesis that an AGN alone is powering the nucleus of NGC4418. The compact features could be super star clusters with intense star formation, and their associated free-free absorption could then naturally explain both their inverted radio spectrum and the low radio-to-IR ratio of the nucleus. The required star formation area density is extreme, however, and close to the limit of what can be observed in a well-mixed thermal/non-thermal plasma produced by star formation, and is also close to the limit of what can be physically sustained.
Autor principal: 
Varenius, E
Autor/es del IAA: 
Costagliola, F.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201323303
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
galaxies: Seyfert; galaxies: star formation; galaxies: individual: NGC 4418
Número de artículo: 
A15

On the distribution of CO2 and CO in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

Titulo: 
On the distribution of CO2 and CO in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere
Autores: 
Garcia, RR; Lopez-Puertas, M; Funke, B; Marsh, DR; Kinnison, DE; Smith, AK; Gonzalez-Galindo, F
Resumen: 
We have used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to calculate the distribution of CO2 and CO in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), and we have compared the results with observations, mainly from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding satellite-borne instruments. We find that WACCM can reproduce the observed distribution of CO2 in the MLT and the rapid falloff of CO2 above about 80 km. Analysis of the principal terms in the calculated budget of CO2 shows that its global-mean vertical profile is determined mainly by the competition between molecular diffusive separation and eddy mixing by gravity waves. The model underestimates somewhat the mixing ratio of CO2 in the thermosphere compared to that in the observations, but we show that the discrepancy may be eliminated by a reasonable adjustment of the Prandtl number used to calculate the diffusivity due to gravity waves. Simulated CO is also consistent with observations, except that in the standard version of the model, its mixing ratio is uniformly lower than observed above about 100 km. We conclude that WACCM likely underestimates the rate of production of CO in the lower thermosphere from photolysis of CO2 at wavelengths <121 nm, and we show that this stems from the use of a very large absorption cross section for O-2 in the wavelength range 105-121 nm. When a smaller cross section is used, photolysis of CO2 increases by a factor of 2-3 at similar to 95-115 km and, as a result, CO mixing ratios become larger and agree much more closely with observations. We emphasize that the increase in CO2 photolysis implies only minor changes in the vertical profile of CO2 because photolytic loss is a minor term in the budget of CO2 in the MLT.
Autor principal: 
Garcia, RR
Autor/es del IAA: 
Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco
DOI: 
10.1002/2013JD021208
Revista: 
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/05/19
Volumen: 
119
Issue: 
9
Páginas: 
5700-5718
Tipo de documento: 
Article

Insights on nitrate sources at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau) from multi-year aerosol and snow records

Titulo: 
Insights on nitrate sources at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau) from multi-year aerosol and snow records
Autores: 
Traversi, R; Udisti, R; Frosini, D; Becagli, S; Ciardini, V; Funke, B; Lanconelli, C; Petkov, B; Scarchilli, C; Severi, M; Vitale, V
Resumen: 
Here we present the first multi-year record of nitrate in the atmospheric aerosol (2005-2008) and surface snow (2006-08) from central Antarctica. PM10 and size-segregated aerosol, together with superficial snow, have been collected all year-round at high resolution (daily for all the snow samples and for most of aerosol samples) at Dome C since the 2004/05 field season and analysed for main and trace ionic markers. The suitability of the sampling location in terms of possible contamination from the base is shown in detail. In spite of the relevance of nitrate in Antarctic atmosphere, both for better understanding the chemistry of N cycle in the plateau boundary layer and for improving the interpretation of long-term nitrate records from deep ice core records, nitrate sources in Antarctica are not well constrained yet, neither in extent nor in timing. A recurring seasonal pattern was pointed out in both aerosol and snow records, showing summer maxima and winter minima, although aerosol maxima lead the snow ones of 1-2 months, possibly due to a higher acidity in the atmosphere in mid-summer, favouring the repartition of nitrate as nitric acid and thus its uptake by the surface snow layers. On the basis of a meteorological analysis of one major nitrate event, of data related to PSC I extent and of irradiance values, we propose that the high nitrate summer levels in aerosol and snow are likely due to a synergy of enhanced source of nitrate and/or its precursors (such as the stratospheric inputs), higher solar irradiance and higher oxidation rates in this season. Moreover, we show here a further evidence of the substantial contribution of HNO3/NOx re-emission from the snowpack, already shown in previous works, and which can explain a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate, maintaining the same seasonal pattern in the snow. As concerning snow specifically, the presented data suggest that nitrate is likely to be controlled mainly by atmospheric processes, not on the daily timescale but rather on the seasonal one.
Autor principal: 
Traversi, R
Autor/es del IAA: 
Funke, Bernd
DOI: 
10.3402/tellusb.v66.22550
Revista: 
TELLUS SERIES B-CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL METEOROLOGY
Fecha de publicación: 
2014
Volumen: 
66
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
nitrate; aerosol; Antarctica; Dome C; chemical composition
Número de artículo: 
22550

ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

Titulo: 
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES
Autores: 
Peralta, J; Imamura, T; Read, PL; Luz, D; Piccialli, A; Lopez-Valverde, MA
Resumen: 
This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied-acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.
Autor principal: 
Peralta, J
Autor/es del IAA: 
Peralta, J.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.
DOI: 
10.1088/0067-0049/213/1/17
Revista: 
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
213
Issue: 
1
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
methods: analytical; methods: data analysis; planets and satellites: atmospheres; waves
Número de artículo: 
17

ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

Titulo: 
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES
Autores: 
Peralta, J; Imamura, T; Read, PL; Luz, D; Piccialli, A; Lopez-Valverde, AA
Resumen: 
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.
Autor principal: 
Peralta, J
Autor/es del IAA: 
Peralta, J.; Lopez-Valverde, Andm. A.
DOI: 
10.1088/0067-0049/213/1/18
Revista: 
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/07
Volumen: 
213
Issue: 
1
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
methods: analytical; methods: data analysis; planets and satellites: atmospheres; waves
Número de artículo: 
18

Integral field spectroscopy of nearby QSOs - I. ENLR size-luminosity relation, ongoing star formation and resolved gas-phase metallicities

Titulo: 
Integral field spectroscopy of nearby QSOs - I. ENLR size-luminosity relation, ongoing star formation and resolved gas-phase metallicities
Autores: 
Husemann, B; Jahnke, K; Sanchez, SF; Wisotzki, L; Nugroho, D; Kupko, D; Schramm, M
Resumen: 
We present optical integral field spectroscopy for a flux-limited sample of 19 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at low redshift (z < 0.2) and spatially resolve their ionized gas properties at a physical resolution of 2-5 kpc. Extended ionized gas exists in all QSO host galaxies irrespective of their morphological types. The extended narrow-line regions (ENLRs), photoionized by the radiation of active galactic nuclei (AGN), have sizes of up to several kpc and correlate more strongly with the QSO continuum luminosity at 5100 than with the integrated [OIII] luminosity. We find a relation of the form log r proportional to (0.46 +/- 0.04) log L-5100, reinforcing the picture of an approximately constant ionization parameter for the ionized clouds across the ENLR. Besides the ENLR, we also find gas ionized by young massive stars in more than 50 per cent of the galaxies on kpc scales. In more than half of the sample, the specific star formation rates based on the extinction-corrected H alpha luminosity are consistent with those of inactive disc-dominated galaxies, even for some bulge-dominated QSO hosts. Enhanced star formation rates of up to similar to 70 M-circle dot yr(-1) are rare and always associated with signatures of major mergers. Comparison with the star formation rate based on the 60+100 mu m far-infrared (FIR) luminosity suggests that the FIR luminosity is systematically contaminated by AGN emission and H alpha appears to be a more robust and sensitive tracer for the star formation rate. Evidence for efficient AGN feedback is scarce in our sample, but some of our QSO hosts lack signatures of ongoing star formation leading to a reduced specific star formation rate with respect to the main sequence of galaxies. Whether this is causally linked to the AGN or simply caused by gas depletion remains an open question. Based on 12 QSOs where we can make measurements, we find that on average bulge-dominated QSO host galaxies tend to fall below the mass-metallicity relation compared to their disc-dominated counterparts. While not yet statistically significant for our small sample, this may provide a useful diagnostic for future large surveys if this metal dilution can be shown to be linked to recent or ongoing galaxy interactions.
Autor principal: 
Husemann, B
Autor/es del IAA: 
Sanchez, S. F.
DOI: 
10.1093/mnras/stu1167
Revista: 
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/09/01
Volumen: 
443
Issue: 
1
Páginas: 
755-783
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
techniques: imaging spectroscopy; ISM: abundances; galaxies: active; galaxies: ISM; quasars: emission lines; galaxies: star formation

Orbit and emission spectroscopy of alpha-Capricornid fireballs

Titulo: 
Orbit and emission spectroscopy of alpha-Capricornid fireballs
Autores: 
Madiedo, JM; Trigo-Rodriguez, JM; Ortiz, JL; Castro-Tirado, AJ; Cabrera-Cano, J
Resumen: 
Seven double-station alpha-Capricornid bolides with absolute magnitudes ranging from -6 to -10 are analyzed. These events were imaged between 2011 and 2013 in the framework of the continuous fireball monitoring and meteor spectroscopy campaign developed by the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). Their atmospheric trajectory is calculated, together with the orbit in the Solar System of the progenitor meteoroids and the tensile strength of these particles. Their emission spectra are also discussed, and the relative abundances of the main rock-forming chemical elements contained in these meteoroids are estimated. An overabundance of Mg with respect to the expected value for chondritic materials is inferred for most of these particles, although the spectra also reveal differences in the composition of alpha-Capricornid meteoroids that allow us to derive information about the parent body of this stream. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autor principal: 
Madiedo, JM
Autor/es del IAA: 
Ortiz, Jose L.; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.
DOI: 
10.1016/j.icarus.2014.06.005
Revista: 
ICARUS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/09/01
Volumen: 
239
Páginas: 
273-280
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
Meteorites; Comets; Meteors

Facing the wind of the pre-FUor V1331 Cyg

Titulo: 
Facing the wind of the pre-FUor V1331 Cyg
Autores: 
Petrov, PP; Kurosawa, R; Romanova, MM; Gameiro, JF; Fernandez, M; Babina, EV; Artemenko, SA
Resumen: 
The mass outflows in T Tauri stars (TTS) are thought to be an effective mechanism to remove angular momentum during the pre-main-sequence contraction of a low-mass star. The most powerful winds are observed at the FUor stage of stellar evolution. V1331 Cyg has been considered as a TTS at the pre-FUor stage. We analyse high-resolution spectra of V1331 Cyg collected in 1998-2007 and 20-d series of spectra taken in 2012. For the first time the photospheric spectrum of the star is detected and stellar parameters are derived: spectral type G7-K0 IV, mass 2.8 M-aS (TM), radius 5 R-aS (TM), v sin i < 6 km s(-1). The photospheric spectrum is highly veiled, but the amount of veiling is not the same in different spectral lines, being lower in weak transitions and much higher in strong transitions. The Fe ii 5018, Mg i 5183, K i 7699 and some other lines of metals are accompanied by a 'shell' absorption at radial velocity of about -240 km s(-1). We show that these absorptions form in the post-shock gas in the jet, i.e. the star is seen though its jet. The P Cyg profiles of H alpha and H beta indicate the terminal wind velocity of about 500 km s(-1), which vary on time-scales from several days to years. A model of the stellar wind is developed to interpret the observations. The model is based on calculation of hydrogen spectral lines using the radiative transfer code torus. The observed H alpha and H beta line profiles and their variability can be well reproduced with a stellar wind model, where the mass-loss rate and collimation (opening angle) of the wind are variable. The changes of the opening angle may be induced by small variability in magnetization of the inner disc wind. The mass-loss rate is found to vary within (6-11) x 10(-8) M-aS (TM) yr(-1), with the accretion rate of 2.0 x 10(-6) M-aS (TM) yr(-1).
Autor principal: 
Petrov, PP
Autor/es del IAA: 
Fernandez, M.
DOI: 
10.1093/mnras/stu1131
Revista: 
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/08/21
Volumen: 
442
Issue: 
4
Páginas: 
3643-3652
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
stars: individual: V1331 Cyg; stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be; stars: winds, outflows

ON THE DUST ENVIRONMENT OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) FROM 12 AU PRE-PERIHELION TO THE END OF ITS ACTIVITY AROUND PERIHELION

Titulo: 
ON THE DUST ENVIRONMENT OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) FROM 12 AU PRE-PERIHELION TO THE END OF ITS ACTIVITY AROUND PERIHELION
Autores: 
Moreno, F; Pozuelos, F; Aceituno, F; Casanova, V; Duffard, R; Lopez-Moreno, JJ; Molina, A; Ortiz, JL; Santos-Sanz, P; Sota, A; Diepvens, A; Segundo, AS; Bell, C; Labordena, C; Bryssinck, E; Cortes, E; Reina, E; Garcia, F; Gomez, F; Limon, F; Soldan, F; Tifner, F; Muler, G; Almendros, I; Aledo, J; Bel, J; Carrillo, J; Castellano, J; Curto, J; Gaitan, J; Salto, JL; Lopesino, J; Lozano, J; Hernandez, JF; Gonzalez, JJ; Martin, JL; Aymami, JM; Bosch, JM; Fernandez, JM; Vidal, JR; Montoro, L; Tremosa, L; Campas, M; Canales, O; Dekelver, PJ; Benavides, R; Naves, R; Castillo, R; Climent, T; Cupillari, T; Yanamandra-Fisher, P
Resumen: 
A Monte Carlo dust tail model has been applied to extract the dust environment parameters of the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and SOHO LASCO C3 observations, performed from about six astronomical units (AU) inbound, to just after perihelion passage, when only a small portion of the original comet nucleus has survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles. The early Af rho and image data are consistent with particle ejection from an extended active area located at latitudes 35 degrees N to 90 degrees N (for a prograde rotating nucleus), with the spin axis having a large obliquity (I similar to 70 degrees). This configuration nicely fits the early images and Af rho data until 3.9 AU inbound, when the emission should become isotropic in order to fit the data. The analysis of LASCO images reveals that, assuming an original nucleus of R-N = 500 m with rho = 1000 kg m(-3), at least half of its mass was vaporized when the comet was at about 17 R-circle dot inbound. We conclude that at that time the nucleus suffered a cataclysmic fragmentation releasing a huge amount of material of 2.3 x 10(11) kg, equivalent to a sphere of 380 m in radius with density 1000 kg m(-3). The surviving material after perihelion passage consists of very small dust particles of 0.1-50 mu m in radius with a total mass of just 6.7x10(8) kg.
Autor principal: 
Moreno, F
Autor/es del IAA: 
Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Duffard, R.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Molina, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Sota, A.
DOI: 
10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/118
Revista: 
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/08/20
Volumen: 
791
Issue: 
2
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
comets: general; comets: individual (C/2012 S1 (ISON)); methods: numerical; Oort Cloud
Número de artículo: 
118

The flattening of the concentration-mass relation towards low halo masses and its implications for the annihilation signal boost

Titulo: 
The flattening of the concentration-mass relation towards low halo masses and its implications for the annihilation signal boost
Autores: 
Sanchez-Conde, MA; Prada, F
Resumen: 
In the standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory for understanding the formation of structure in the Universe, there exists a tight connection between the properties of dark matter (DM) haloes, and their formation epochs. Such relation can be expressed in terms of a single key parameter, namely the halo concentration. In this work, we examine the median concentration-mass relation, c(M), at present time, over more than 20 orders of magnitude in halo mass, i.e. from tiny Earth-mass microhaloes up to galaxy clusters. The c(M) model proposed by Prada et al. (2012), which links the halo concentration with the rms amplitude of matter linear fluctuations, describes remarkably well all the available N-body simulation data down to similar to 10(-6) h(-1) M-aS (TM) microhaloes. A clear fattening of the halo concentration-mass relation towards smaller masses is observed, that excludes the commonly adopted power-law c(M) models, and stands as a natural prediction for the CDM paradigm. We provide a parametrization for the c(M) relation that works accurately for all halo masses. This feature in the c(M) relation at low masses has decisive consequences e.g. for gamma-ray DM searches, as it implies more modest boosts of the DM annihilation flux due to substructure, i.e. similar to 35 for galaxy clusters and similar to 15 for galaxies like our own, as compared to those huge values adopted in the literature that rely on such power-law c(M) extrapolations. We provide a parametrization of the boosts that can be safely used for dwarfs to galaxy cluster-size haloes.
Autor principal: 
Sanchez-Conde, MA
Autor/es del IAA: 
Prada, Francisco
DOI: 
10.1093/mnras/stu1014
Revista: 
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/08/11
Volumen: 
442
Issue: 
3
Páginas: 
2271-2277
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
galaxies: haloes; cosmology: theory; dark matter

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