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CRIRES-VLT high-resolution spectro-astrometry as a tool in the search for disks inside the cores of planetary nebulae

Titulo: 
CRIRES-VLT high-resolution spectro-astrometry as a tool in the search for disks inside the cores of planetary nebulae
Autores: 
Cardenas, MWB; Kaufl, HU; Guerrero, MA; Miranda, LF; Seifahrt, A
Resumen: 
The onset of asymmetry in planetary nebulae (PNe) occurs during the short transition between the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and the beginning of the PN phase. Sources in this transition phase are compact and emit intensely in infrared wavelengths, making high spatial resolution observations in the infrared mandatory to investigate the shaping process of PNe. Interferometric VLTI IR observations have revealed compelling evidence of disks at the cores of PNe, but the limited sensitivity, strong observational constraints, and limited spatial coverage place severe limits on a universal use of this technique. Inspired by the successful detection of proto-planetary disks using spectro-astrometric observations, we apply this technique here for the first time to search for subarcsecond structures in PNe. Our exploratory study using CRyogenic high-resolution Infra-Red Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) commissioning data of the proto-PN IRAS 17516-2525 and the young PN SwSt 1 has revealed small-sized structures after the spectro-astrometric analysis of the two sources. In IRAS 17516-2525, the spectro-astrometric signal has a size of only 12+/-5mas, as detected in the Br gamma line, whereas the structures found in SwSt 1 have sizes of 230 +/- 29 mas in the [Fe III] line and 130 +/- 21 mas in the Br gamma line. The spectroscopic observations required to perform spectro-astrometry of sources in the transition towards the PN phase are less time-consuming and much more sensitive than VLTI IR observations. The results presented here open a new window in the search for the small-sized collimating agents that shape the complex morphologies of extremely axisymmetric PNe.
Autor principal: 
Cardenas, MWB
Autor/es del IAA: 
Blanco Cardenas, M. W.; Guerrero, M. A.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201322564
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
techniques: spectroscopic; techniques: high angular resolution; ISM: jets and outflows; planetary nebulae: general; planetary nebulae: individual: IRAS 17516-2525; planetary nebulae: individual: SwSt 1

Gaia-ESO Survey: Empirical classification of VLT/Giraffe stellar spectra in the wavelength range 6440-6810 angstrom in the gamma Velorum cluster, and calibration of spectral indices

Titulo: 
Gaia-ESO Survey: Empirical classification of VLT/Giraffe stellar spectra in the wavelength range 6440-6810 angstrom in the gamma Velorum cluster, and calibration of spectral indices
Autores: 
Damiani, F; Prisinzano, L; Micela, G; Randich, S; Gilmore, G; Drew, JE; Jeffries, RD; Fremat, Y; Alfaro, EJ; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, AC; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Sacco, GG; Smiljanic, R; Jackson, RJ; de Laverny, P; Morbidelli, L; Worley, CC; Hourihane, A; Costado, MT; Jofre, P; Lind, K; Maiorca, E
Resumen: 
We present a study of spectral diagnostics available from optical spectra with R = 17 000 obtained with the VLT/Giraffe HR15n setup, using observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey, on the gamma Vel young cluster, with the purpose of classifying these stars and finding their fundamental parameters. We define several spectroscopic indices, sampling the amplitude of TiO bands, the H alpha line core and wings, and temperature- and gravity-sensitive sets of lines, each useful as a T-eff or log g indicator over a limited range of stellar spectral types. H alpha line indices are also useful as chromospheric activity or accretion indicators. Furthermore, we use all indices to define additional global T-eff - and logg-sensitive indices tau and gamma, valid for the entire range of types in the observed sample. We find a clear difference between gravity indices of main-sequence and pre-main-sequence stars, as well as a much larger difference between these and giant stars. The potentially great usefulness of the (gamma, t) diagram as a distance-independent age measurement tool for young clusters is discussed. We discuss the effect on the defined indices of classical T Tauri star veiling, which is however detected in only a few stars in the present sample. Then, we present tests and calibrations of these indices, on the basis of both photometry and literature reference spectra, from the UVES Paranal Observatory Project and the ELODIE 3.1 Library. The known properties of these stars, spanning a wide range of stellar parameters, enable us to obtain a good understanding of the performances of our new spectral indices. For non-peculiar stars with known temperature, gravity, and metallicity, we are able to calibrate quantitatively our indices, and derive stellar parameters for a wide range of stellar types. To this aim, a new composite index is defined, providing a good metallicity indicator. The ability of our indices to select peculiar, or otherwise rare classes of stars is also established. For pre-main-sequence stars outside the parameter range of the ELODIE dataset, index calibration relies on model isochrones. We check our calibrations against current Gaia-ESO UVES results, plus a number of Survey benchmark stars, and also against Gaia-ESO observations of young clusters, which contribute to establishing the good performance of our method across a wide range of stellar parameters. Our gravity determination for late-type PMS stars is found to be accurate enough to let us obtain gravity-based age estimates for PMS clusters. Finally, our gravity determinations support the existence of an older pre-main-sequence population in the gamma Vel sky region, in agreement with evidence obtained from the lithium depletion pattern of the same stars.
Autor principal: 
Damiani, F
Autor/es del IAA: 
Alfaro, E. J.; Costado, M. T.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201323306
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
stars: fundamental parameters; stars: pre-main sequence; open clusters and associations: individual: gamma2 Velorum
Número de artículo: 
A50

Glory revealed in disk-integrated photometry of Venus

Titulo: 
Glory revealed in disk-integrated photometry of Venus
Autores: 
Munoz, AG; Perez-Hoyos, S; Sanchez-Lavega, A
Resumen: 
Context. Reflected light from a spatially unresolved planet yields unique insight into the overall optical properties of the planet cover. Glories are optical phenomena caused by light that is backscattered within spherical droplets following a narrow distribution of sizes; they are well known on Earth as localised features above liquid clouds. Aims. Here we report the first evidence for a glory in the disk-integrated photometry of Venus and, in turn, of any planet. Methods. We used previously published phase curves of the planet that were reproduced over the full range of phase angles with model predictions based on a realistic description of the Venus atmosphere. We assumed that the optical properties of the planet as a whole can be described by a uniform and stable cloud cover, an assumption that agrees well with observational evidence. Results. We specifically show that the measured phase curves mimic the scattering properties of the Venus upper-cloud micron-sized aerosols, also at the small phase angles at which the glory occurs, and that the glory contrast is consistent with what is expected after multiple scattering of photons. In the optical, the planet appears to be brighter at phase angles of similar to 11-13 degrees than at full illumination; it undergoes a maximum dimming of up to similar to 10% at phases in between. Conclusions. Glories might potentially indicate spherical droplets and, thus, extant liquid clouds in the atmospheres of exoplanets. A prospective detection will require exquisite photometry at the small planet-star separations of the glory phase angles.
Autor principal: 
Munoz, AG
Autor/es del IAA: 
Perez-Hoyos, S.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423531
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
techniques: photometric; planets and satellites: atmospheres; radiative transfer

Mass profile and dynamical status of the z similar to 0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504

Titulo: 
Mass profile and dynamical status of the z similar to 0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504
Autores: 
Guennou, L; Biviano, A; Adami, C; Limousin, M; Neto, GBL; Mamon, GA; Ulmer, MP; Gavazzi, R; Cypriano, ES; Durret, F; Clowe, D; LeBrun, V; Allam, S; Basa, S; Benoist, C; Cappi, A; Halliday, C; Ilbert, O; Johnston, D; Jullo, E; Just, D; Kubo, JM; Marquez, I; Marshall, P; Martinet, N; Maurogordato, S; Mazure, A; Murphy, KJ; Plana, H; Rostagni, F; Russeil, D; Schirmer, M; Schrabback, T; Slezak, E; Tucker, D; Zaritsky, D; Ziegler, B
Resumen: 
Context. Constraints on the mass distribution in high-redshift clusters of galaxies are currently not very strong. Aims. We aim to constrain the mass profile, M(r), and dynamical status of the z similar to 0.8 LCDCS 0504 cluster of galaxies that is characterized by prominent giant gravitational arcs near its center. Methods. Our analysis is based on deep X-ray, optical, and infrared imaging as well as optical spectroscopy, collected with various instruments, which we complemented with archival data. We modeled the mass distribution of the cluster with three different mass density profiles, whose parameters were constrained by the strong lensing features of the inner cluster region, by the X-ray emission from the intracluster medium, and by the kinematics of 71 cluster members. Results. We obtain consistent M(r) determinations from three methods based on kinematics (dispersion-kurtosis, caustics, and MAMPOSSt), out to the cluster virial radius, similar or equal to 1.3 Mpc and beyond. The mass profile inferred by the strong lensing analysis in the central cluster region is slightly higher than, but still consistent with, the kinematics estimate. On the other hand, the X-ray based M(r) is significantly lower than the kinematics and strong lensing estimates. Theoretical predictions from Lambda CDM cosmology for the concentration-mass relation agree with our observational results, when taking into account the uncertainties in the observational and theoretical estimates. There appears to be a central deficit in the intracluster gas mass fraction compared with nearby clusters. Conclusions. Despite the relaxed appearance of this cluster, the determinations of its mass profile by different probes show substantial discrepancies, the origin of which remains to be determined. The extension of a dynamical analysis similar to that of other clusters of the DAFT/FADA survey with multiwavelength data of sufficient quality will allow shedding light on the possible systematics that affect the determination of mass profiles of high-z clusters, which is possibly related to our incomplete understanding of intracluster baryon physics.
Autor principal: 
Guennou, L
Autor/es del IAA: 
Marquez, I.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201322447
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
Número de artículo: 
A149

A time-dependent photochemical model for Titan's atmosphere and the origin of H2O

Titulo: 
A time-dependent photochemical model for Titan's atmosphere and the origin of H2O
Autores: 
Lara, LM; Lellouch, E; Gonzalez, M; Moreno, R; Rengel, M
Resumen: 
Context. Titan's stratosphere contains oxygen compounds (CO, CO2, and H2O), implying an external source of oxygen whose nature is still uncertain. Recent observations from the Herschel Space Observatory using the HIFI and PACS instruments and the Cassini/CIRS, as well as steady-state photochemical modeling indicate that the amounts of CO2 and H2O in Titan's stratosphere may imply inconsistent values of the OH/H2O input flux, and that the oxygen source is time-variable. Aims. We attempt to reconcile the H2O and CO2 observed profiles in Titan's atmosphere by using an updated photochemical scheme and developing several time-dependent scenarios for the influx/evolution of oxygen species. Methods. We use a time-dependent photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere to calculate effective lifetimes and the response of Titan's oxygen compounds to changes in the oxygen input flux. Two variants for the C-H-O chemical network are considered. We investigate a time-variable Enceladus source and the evolution of material delivered by a cometary impact. Results. We find that the effective lifetime of H2O in Titan's atmosphere is only a factor of six shorter than that of CO2 and exceeds 10 yr below 200 km. A time-variable Enceladus source, involving a decrease by a factor of 5-20 in the OH/H2O flux over the last few centuries, shows promise in explaining the relative CO2/H2O profiles. However, if the previous measurements from the Herschel Space Observatory are representative of Titan's atmospheric water, an additional H2O loss to the haze term is needed to bring the model in full agreement with the data. In an alternate situation, CO2 production following a cometary impact that occurred at least 220-300 yr ago can in principle explain the CO2 'excess' in Titan's stratosphere, but this scenario is highly unlikely, given the estimates of the impact rate at Titan.
Autor principal: 
Lara, LM
Autor/es del IAA: 
Lara, L. M.; Gonzalez, M.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201323085
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
planets and satellites: atmospheres; planets and satellites: individual: Titan; planets and satellites: composition
Número de artículo: 
A143

Collision avoidance in next-generation fiber positioner robotic systems for large survey spectrographs

Titulo: 
Collision avoidance in next-generation fiber positioner robotic systems for large survey spectrographs
Autores: 
Makarem, L; Kneib, JP; Gillet, D; Bleuler, H; Bouri, M; Jenni, L; Prada, F; Sanchez, J
Resumen: 
Some of the next-generation massive spectroscopic survey projects plan to use thousands of fiber positioner robots packed at a focal plane to quickly move the fiber ends in parallel from the previous to the next target points. The most direct trajectories are prone to collision that could damage the robots and have an impact on the survey operation. We thus present here a motion planning method based on a novel decentralized navigation function for collision-free coordination of fiber positioners. The navigation function takes into account the configuration of positioners as well as the actuator constraints. We provide details of the proof of convergence and collision avoidance. Decentralization results in linear complexity for the motion planning as well as no dependence of motion duration on the number of positioners. Therefore, the coordination method is scalable for large-scale spectrograph robots. The short in-motion duration of positioner robots will thus allow the time dedicated for observation to be maximized.
Autor principal: 
Makarem, L
Autor/es del IAA: 
Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201323202
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
instrumentation: spectrographs; techniques: spectroscopic
Número de artículo: 
A84

Evidence of internal rotation and a helical magnetic field in the jet of the quasar NRAO 150

Titulo: 
Evidence of internal rotation and a helical magnetic field in the jet of the quasar NRAO 150
Autores: 
Molina, SN; Agudo, I; Gomez, JL; Krichbaum, TP; Marti-Vidal, I; Roy, AL
Resumen: 
The source NRAO 150 is a very prominent millimeter to radio emitting quasar at redshift z = 1.52 for which previous millimeter VLBI observations revealed a fast counterclockwise rotation of the innermost regions of the jet. Here we present new polarimetric multi-epoch VLBI-imaging observations of NRAO 150 performed at 8, 15, 22, 43, and 86 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) between 2006 and 2010. All new and previous observational evidence - i.e., spectral index maps, multi-epoch image cross-correlation, and low level of linear polarization degree in optically thin regions - are consistent with an interpretation of the source behavior where the jet is seen at an extremely small angle to the line of sight, and the high frequency emitting regions in NRAO 150 rotate at high speeds on the plane of the sky with respect to a reference point that does not need to be related to any particularly prominent jet feature. The observed polarization angle distribution at 22, 43, and 86 GHz during observing epochs with high polarization degree suggests that we have detected the toroidal component of the magnetic field threading the innermost jet plasma regions. This is also consistent with the lower degree of polarization detected at progressively poorer angular resolutions, where the integrated polarization intensity produced by the toroidal field is explained by polarization cancellation inside the observing beam. All this evidence is fully consistent with a kinematic scenario where the main kinematic and polarization properties of the 43 GHz emitting structure of NRAO 150 are explained by the internal rotation of such emission regions around the jet axis when the jet is seen almost face on. A simplified model developed to fit helical trajectories to the observed kinematics of the 43GHz features fully supports this hypothesis. This explains the kinematics of the innermost regions of the jet in NRAO 150 in terms of internal jet rotation.
Autor principal: 
Molina, SN
Autor/es del IAA: 
Molina, Sol N.; Agudo, Ivaen; Goemez, Jose L.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423479
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
galaxies: active; galaxies: jets; quasars: general; galaxies: groups: individual: NRAO150; techniques: polarimetric; techniques: interferometric
Número de artículo: 
A26

The giant H II region NGC 588 as a benchmark for 2D photoionisation models

Titulo: 
The giant H II region NGC 588 as a benchmark for 2D photoionisation models
Autores: 
Perez-Montero, E; Monreal-Ibero, A; Relano, M; Vilchez, JM; Kehrig, C; Morisset, C
Resumen: 
Aims. We use optical integral field spectroscopy and 8 mu m and 24 mu m mid-IR observations of the giant H II region NGC 588 in the disc of M33 as input and constraints for two-dimensional tailor-made photoionisation models under different geometrical approaches. We do this to explore the spatial distribution of gas and dust in the interstellar, ionised medium surrounding multiple massive stars. Methods. Two different geometrical approaches are followed for the modelling structure: i) Each spatial element of the emitting gas is studied individually using models, which assume that the ionisation structure is complete in each element, to look for azimuthal variations across gas and dust. ii) A single model is considered, and the two-dimensional structure of the gas and the dust are assumed to be due to the projection of an emitting sphere onto the sky. Results. The models in both assumptions reproduce the radial profiles of H beta surface brightness, the observed number of ionising photons, and the strong optical emission-line relative intensities. The first approach produces a constant-density, matter-bounded thin shell of variable thickness and dust-to-gas ratio, while the second gives place to a radiation-bounded, thick shell sphere of decreasing particle density. However, the radial profile of the 8 mu m/24 mu m IR ratio, depending on the gas and dust geometry, only fits well when the thick-shell model is used. The resulting dust-to-gas mass ratio, which was obtained empirically from the derived dust mass using data from Spitzer, also has a better fit using the thick-shell solution. In both approaches, models support the importance of the low surface-brightness positions on the integrated spectrum of the nebula, the chemical homogeneity, the ionisation-parameter radial decrease, and the robustness of strong-line methods to derive the equivalent effective temperature in extended regions. These results must be taken with care in view of the very low extinction values that are derived from the IR, as compared to that derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides, the IR can be possibly contaminated with the emission from a cloud of diffuse gas and dust above the plane of the galaxy detected at 250 mu m Herschel image.
Autor principal: 
Perez-Montero, E
Autor/es del IAA: 
Perez-Montero, E.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Vilchez, J. M.; Kehrig, C.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201322770
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
galaxies: individual: NGC 588; ISM: abundances; dust, extinction; ISM: structure; H II regions
Número de artículo: 
A12

Surface brightness profile of the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster

Titulo: 
Surface brightness profile of the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster
Autores: 
Schodel, R; Feldmeier, A; Kunneriath, D; Stolovy, S; Neumayer, N; Amaro-Seoane, P; Nishiyama, S
Resumen: 
Context. Although the Milky Way nuclear star cluster (MWNSC) was discovered more than four decades ago, several of its key properties have not been determined unambiguously up to now because of the strong and spatially highly variable interstellar extinction toward the Galactic centre. Aims. In this paper we aim at determining the shape, size, and luminosity/mass of the MWNSC. Methods. To investigate the properties of the MWNSC, we used Spitzer/IRAC images at 3.6 and 4.5 mu m, where interstellar extinction is at a minimum but the overall emission is still dominated by stars. We corrected the 4.5 mu m image for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission with the help of the IRAC 8.0 mu m map and for extinction with the help of a [3.6-4.5] colour map. Finally, we investigated the symmetry of the nuclear cluster and fit it with Sersic, Moffat, and King models. Results. We present an extinction map for the central similar to 300 x 200 pc(2) of the Milky Way, as well as a PAH-emission- and extinction-corrected image of the stellar emission, with a resolution of about 0.20 pc. We find that the MWNSC appears in projection to be intrinsically point-symmetric, that it is significantly flattened, with its major axis aligned along the Galactic plane, and that it is centred on the black hole, Sagittarius A*. Its density follows the well known approximate rho proportional to r(-2)-law at distances of a few parsec from Sagittarius A*, but becomes as steep as rho proportional to r(-3) at projected radii around 5 pc. We derive a half light radius of 4.2 +/- 0.4 pc, a total luminosity of L-MWNSC,L-4.5 (mu m) = 4.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(7) L-circle dot, and a mass of M-MWNSC = 2.5 +/- 0.4 x 10(7) M-circle dot. Conclusions. The overall properties of the MWNSC agree well with the ones of its extragalactic counterparts, which underlines its role as a template for these objects. Its flattening agrees well with its previously established rotation parallel to Galactic rotation and suggests that it was formed by accretion of material that tended to fall in along the Galactic plane. Our findings support the in situ growth scenario for nuclear clusters and emphasise the need to increase the complexity of theoretical models for their formation and for the interaction between their stars and the central black hole in order to include rotation, axisymmetry, and growth in recurrent episodes.
Autor principal: 
Schodel, R
Autor/es del IAA: 
Schoedel, R.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423481
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
dust, extinction; Galaxy: center; Galaxy: nucleus; Galaxy: structure; galaxies: nuclei; infrared: stars
Número de artículo: 
A47

GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz: Bridging the gap between low- and high-luminosity gamma-ray bursts

Titulo: 
GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz: Bridging the gap between low- and high-luminosity gamma-ray bursts
Autores: 
Schulze, S; Malesani, D; Cucchiara, A; Tanvir, NR; Kruhler, T; Postigo, AD; Leloudas, G; Lyman, J; Bersier, D; Wiersema, K; Perley, DA; Schady, P; Gorosabel, J; Anderson, JP; Castro-Tirado, AJ; Cenko, SB; De Cia, A; Ellerbroek, LE; Fynbo, JPU; Greiner, J; Hjorth, J; Kann, DA; Kaper, L; Klose, S; Levan, AJ; Martin, S; O'Brien, PT; Page, KL; Pignata, G; Rapaport, S; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Sollerman, J; Smith, IA; Sparre, M; Thone, CC; Watson, DJ; Xu, D; Bauer, EE; Bayliss, M; Bjornsson, G; Bremer, M; Cano, Z; Covino, S; D'Elia, V; Frail, DA; Geier, S; Goldoni, P; Hartoog, OE; Jakobsson, P; Korhonen, H; Lee, KY; Milvang-Jensen, B; Nardini, M; Guelbenzu, AN; Oguri, M; Pandey, SB; Petitpas, G; Rossi, A; Sandberg, A; Schmidl, S; Tagliaferri, G; Tilanus, RPJ; Winters, JM; Wright, D; Wuyts, E
Resumen: 
Context. At low redshift, a handful of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been discovered with luminosities that are substantially lower (L-iso less than or similar to 10(48.5) erg s(-1)) than the average of more distant ones (L-iso greater than or similar to 10(49.5) erg s(-1)). It has been suggested that the properties of several low-luminosity (low-L) GRBs are due to shock break-out, as opposed to the emission from ultrarelativistic jets. This has led to much debate about how the populations are connected. Aims. The burst at redshift z = 0.283 from 2012 April 22 is one of the very few examples of intermediate-L GRBs with a gamma-ray luminosity of L-iso similar to 10(49.6-49.9) erg s(-1) that have been detected up to now. With the robust detection of its accompanying supernova SN 2012bz, it has the potential to answer important questions on the origin of low-and high-L GRBs and the GRB-SN connection. Methods. We carried out a spectroscopy campaign using medium-and low-resolution spectrographs with 6-10-m class telescopes, which covered a time span of 37.3 days, and a multi-wavelength imaging campaign, which ranged from radio to X-ray energies over a duration of similar to 270 days. Furthermore, we used a tuneable filter that is centred at H alpha to map star-formation in the host and the surrounding galaxies. We used these data to extract and model the properties of different radiation components and fitted the spectral energy distribution to extract the properties of the host galaxy. Results. Modelling the light curve and spectral energy distribution from the radio to the X-rays revealed that the blast wave expanded with an initial Lorentz factor of Gamma(0) similar to 50, which is a low value in comparison to high-L GRBs, and that the afterglow had an exceptionally low peak luminosity density of less than or similar to 2 x 10(30) erg s(-1) Hz(-1) in the sub-mm. Because of the weak afterglow component, we were able to recover the signature of a shock break-out in an event that was not a genuine low-L GRB for the first time. At 1.4 hr after the burst, the stellar envelope had a blackbody temperature of k(B)T similar to 16 eV and a radius of similar to 7 x 10(13) cm (both in the observer frame). The accompanying SN 2012bz reached a peak luminosity of M-V = -19.7 mag, which is 0.3 mag more luminous than SN 1998bw. The synthesised nickel mass of 0.58 M-circle dot, ejecta mass of 5.87 M-circle dot, and kinetic energy of 4.10x10(52) erg were among the highest for GRB-SNe, which makes it the most luminous spectroscopically confirmed SN to date. Nebular emission lines at the GRB location were visible, which extend from the galaxy nucleus to the explosion site. The host and the explosion site had close-to-solar metallicity. The burst occurred in an isolated star-forming region with an SFR that is 1/10 of that in the galaxy's nucleus. Conclusions. While the prompt gamma-ray emission points to a high-L GRB, the weak afterglow and the low Gamma(0) were very atypical for such a burst. Moreover, the detection of the shock break-out signature is a new quality for high-L GRBs. So far, shock break-outs were exclusively detected for low-L GRBs, while GRB 120422A had an intermediate L-iso of similar to 10(49.6-49.9) erg s(-1). Therefore, we conclude that GRB 120422A was a transition object between low-and high-L GRBs, which supports the failed-jet model that connects low-L GRBs that are driven by shock break-outs and high-L GRBs that are powered by ultra-relativistic jets.
Autor principal: 
Schulze, S
Autor/es del IAA: 
de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Thoene, C. C.
DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/201423387
Revista: 
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Fecha de publicación: 
2014/06
Volumen: 
566
Tipo de documento: 
Article
Palabras clave: 
gamma-ray burst: individual: GRB 120422A; supernovae: individual: SN 2012bz; dust, extinction; galaxies: ISM; galaxies: individual: GRB 120422A

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